Gustav Jung 26 July 1875 – 6 June 1961
Carl Gustav Jung
(German pronunciation: [ˈkaːɐ̯l ˈgʊstaf ˈjʊŋ]; was a Swiss psychiatrist,
an influential thinker and the founder of analytical psychology (also known
as Jungian psychology). Jung's approach to psychology has been influential
in the field of depth psychology and in countercultural movements across
the globe. Jung is considered as the first modern psychologist to state
that the human psyche is "by nature religious" and to explore it in depth.
He emphasized understanding the psyche through exploring the worlds
of dreams, art, mythology, religion and philosophy. Though not the first
to analyze dreams, he has become perhaps the most well known pioneer in
the field of dream analysis. Although he was a theoretical psychologist and
practicing clinician, much of his life's work was spent exploring other
areas, including Eastern and Western philosophy, alchemy, astrology, sociology,
as well as literature and the arts.
the importance of balance and harmony. He cautioned that modern people
rely too heavily on natural science and logical positivism and would benefit
from integrating spirituality and appreciation of unconscious realms. He
considered the process of individuation necessary for a person to become
whole. This is a psychological process of integrating the conscious with
the unconscious while still maintaining conscious autonomy. Individuation
was the central concept of analytical psychology.
Jungian ideas are
not typically included in curriculum of most major universities' psychology
departments, but are occasionally explored in humanities departments. Many
pioneering psychological concepts were originally proposed by Jung, including
the Archetype, the Collective Unconscious, the Complex, and synchronicity.
A popular psychometric instrument, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI),
has been principally developed from Jung's theories.
Jung was thirty
when he sent his Studies in Word Association to Sigmund Freud in Vienna.
The first conversation between Jung and Freud is reported to have lasted
over 13 hours. Six months later, the then 50 year-old Freud sent a collection
of his latest published essays to Jung in Zürich, which marked the
beginning of an intense correspondence and collaboration that lasted six
years and ended in May 1910. At this time Jung resigned as the chairman of
the International Psychoanalytical Association, where he had been elected
with Freud's support.
Today Jung's and Freud's theories have diverged. Nevertheless, they
influenced each other during intellectually formative years of Jung's
life. As Freud was already 50 years old at their meeting, he was well
beyond the formative years. In 1906 psychology as a science was still in
its early stages. Jung, who had become interested in psychiatry as a student
by reading Psychopathia Sexualis by Richard von Krafft-Ebing, professor
in Vienna, now worked as a doctor under the psychiatrist Eugen Bleuler
in Burghölzli and became familiar with Freud's idea of the unconscious
through Freud's The Interpretation of Dreams (1900) and was a proponent
of the new "psycho-analysis". At the time, Freud needed collaborators
and pupils to validate and spread his ideas. Burghölzli was a renowned
psychiatric clinic in Zürich at which Jung was a young doctor whose
research had already given him international recognition.
In 1908, Jung became editor of the newly founded Yearbook for Psychoanalytical
and Psychopathological Research. The following year, Jung traveled with
Freud and Sandor Ferenczi to the U.S. to spread the news of psychoanalysis
and in 1910, Jung became Chairman for Life of the International Psychoanalytical
Association. While Jung worked on his Wandlungen und Symbole der Libido
(Psychology of the Unconscious), tensions grew between Freud and Jung, due
in a large part to their disagreements over the nature of libido and religion[clarification
needed]. In 1912 these tensions came to a peak because Jung felt severely
slighted after Freud visited his colleague Ludwig Binswanger in Kreuzlingen
without paying him a visit in nearby Zürich, an incident Jung referred
to as the Kreuzlingen gesture. Shortly thereafter, Jung again traveled
to the U.S.A. and gave the Fordham lectures, which were published as The
Theory of Psychoanalysis. While they contain some remarks on Jung's dissenting
view on the nature of libido, they represent largely a "psychoanalytical
Jung" and not the theory Jung became famous for in the following decades.
In November 1912, Jung and Freud met in Munich for a meeting among
prominent colleagues to discuss psychoanalytical journals. At a talk about
a new psychoanalytic essay on Amenhotep IV, Jung expressed his views on
how it related to actual conflicts in the psychoanalytic movement. While
Jung spoke, Freud suddenly fainted and Jung carried him to a couch.
Jung and Freud personally met for the last time in September 1913
for the Fourth International Psychoanalytical Congress, also in Munich.
Jung gave a talk on psychological types, the introverted and the extraverted
type, in analytical psychology. This constituted the introduction of some
of the key concepts which came to distinguish Jung's work from Freud's in
the next half century.
In the following years Jung experienced considerable isolation in
his professional life, exacerbated through World War I. His Seven Sermons
to the Dead (1917) reprinted in his autobiography Memories, Dreams, Reflections
(see bibliography) can also be read as expression of the psychological
conflicts which beset Jung around the age of 40 after the break with Freud.
Jung's primary disagreement with Freud stemmed from their differing
concepts of the unconscious. Jung saw Freud's theory of the unconscious
as incomplete and unnecessarily negative. According to Jung (though not
according to Freud), Freud conceived the unconscious solely as a repository
of repressed emotions and desires. Jung agreed with Freud's model of the
unconscious, what Jung called the 'personal unconscious,' but he also
proposed the existence of a second, far deeper form of the unconscious
underlying the personal one. This was the collective unconscious, where
the archetypes themselves resided, represented in mythology by a lake or
other body of water, and in some cases a jug or other container. Freud had
actually mentioned a collective level of psychic functioning but saw it
primarily as an appendix to the rest of the psyche.